The Rise of Male Dominance in Commercial Sex

The aim of my research is to discover if there’s a relationship between the rise of male dominance in commercial sex, and the independence of prostitutes, or the increased accounts of publications for profit from 1790 to 1920, with a focus on the mid-to-late 19th century.

As Catherine Holder Spude states in her 2005 article Brothels and Saloons: An Archaeology of Gender in the American West, historical archaeology has become an increasingly useful tool for elucidating gender studies. This allows a greater understanding of culture in today’s world in regards to social inequalities.

Some of the most interesting findings in my research include resources discussing the prostitutes who were murdered and the killer being let go. Such cases include the murder of Kate Townsend in 1883, which was published in the New York Times. This can be found in the link below.

Murder of Kate Townsend

Not only are their increased published accounts for profit regarding journalists and editors, but after further research, one finds published accounts advertising prostitutes and halls in which they resided.

What I have found not only includes increased publications for profit in relation to the rise of male dominance in commercial sex, but also publications for the brothel owners and prostitutes themselves.

-Stephanie H.

A History on Harborview Medical Center

For my Seattle Building History report, I chose Harborview Medical Center. The hospital is owned by King County, and was built as a two-story six-bed King County Welfare Hospital in 1877. The hospital first moved to Georgetown by 1906, and had 225 patient beds. The hospital was originally named, “King County Hospital” and was renamed after its second move in 1931. This was when the center wing of the current hospital was completed. I had much difficulty locating a map of the building prior to both moves.

This link shows a map of the present hospital:

This is a postcard, shortly after the hospital was moved in 1931:

In my research, what I found most interesting was “Harborview Hall,” which served as the base for the University of Washington’s Nursing School. It is across from Harborview Medical Center, and opened in the 1930’s. In the late 1940’s, the first African Americans enrolled in the nursing program, and lived in Harborview Hall

Property of Harborview Medical Center Board of Trustees


King County’s website, on December 19, 2016, states that the county is working on preserving Harborview Hall, and to establish the building as “a landmark building in the heart of Seattle’s hospital district.” Unfortunately, I was not able to find any updated information regarding the preservation of Harborview Hall.

Here is a more current photo of Harborview Hall from King County’s website:

-Stephanie H.

Historic Bottles: Ozomulsion

This is an amber medical bottle which contained Ozomulsion. Ozomulsion was “considered” to have been the cure for consumption (pulmonary tuberculosis) during the time it was manufactured. In researching the glass container, I discovered the bottle was first introduced in the 1880’s. It was manufactured in London, and New York. Dr. M. Donald Blaufox states that ads for Ozomulsion appeared as late as 1948. The amber bottle has large letters embossed on the front which spell “OZOMULSION”. Since the bottle is rather large, I would presume one would need to pour the contents into a separate container prior to using it.

Here’s an ad I found when researching Ozomulsion:

I would certainly expect Ozomulsion to have been in this bottle in the time it was discovered. Considering it was assumed to have been the cure for “consumption”, I would also suspect parents purchased the product for their children. It’s likely that anyone who believed this was the cure for consumption would have purchased this product if they were able.

– Stephanie H.


Blaufox, M. Donald M.D., PH. D. (Unknown). Museum of Historical Artifacts: 19th Century Medicine. Creative Commons Attribution. Retrieved 12 Feb. 2017

Gender Differences in Gravestones

In later dates, gravestones of women were somewhat lacking permanent adorn or design, such as a cross or other religious motif in comparison to male gravestones, which are more detailed and descriptive. For instance, a gravestone in St. Matthew says, “Beloved Marie” and unfortunately doesn’t have her last name on it. She passed in 1926, and the gravestone is somewhat small. In St. James, one large cenotaph reads, “In loving memory of William Chochrane” who passed away in 1911. Near the cenotaph, there’s one footstone with William and his wife’s name, as well as three other headstones. Two are female, and one is male. The male headstone has his name almost fully spelt out, except for his middle name: “William F. Cochrane Jr.”. Birth and death dates are also shown on William Cochrane’s footstone. The females’ footstones simply say, “Mary E.” and “Sue E.” with their birth and death dates. While the male footstone is more descriptive, the three footstones are similar in size and shape. In St. Matthew, one gravestone of a single male “Albert. A. Amodel” has a cross design to the left of the name, and is a little bit larger than the “Beloved Marie” footstone. The rest of the female’s footstone reads, “Died Mar. 5, 1911. Aged 28 YRS”, while the male’s footstone reads, “Nov. 9, 1921 – June 25, 1972 In the Lord, I put my trust”. The male footstone here is much more detailed, and implies religious beliefs. A possible explanation is that the female footstone is from 1911, and the male footstone is from 1972. Her family might not have been able to afford a more descriptive gravestone. There’s also a large tablet in the St. Joseph’s section for a male who passed in 1900. It reads, “In memory of Thomas Mathew Corbett Born Feb. 22, 1889 Died Aug. 3, 1900”. This is not only a tablet which is seen without walking directly up to it, but it is written in remembrance of the male who passed away. The dates are written out, and not simply years. His name is also fully spelt out. Looking at these gravestones, it appears female gravestones lacked permanent adorn or design, while male gravestone are more detailed and descriptive.


– Stephanie H.

Trash that!

What stood out the most to me from the classmate’s refuse I looked through were the items from the dorm, as well as the tea bags and cough drops. They used nine bags of tea and several cough drop wrappers in seven days. It’s rather clear this person is a student by looking at their garbage, and unfortunately, they’re sick. When I compare their refuse with mine, I can’t help but feel ashamed of all the recycle and plastic I threw into the garbage. Sure, they had a few plastic packages from the UW Bookstore, or the comic store, but it doesn’t add up to be nearly as much as mine. I wonder if this is due to the locations in which we live. For one, it’s clear this person lives in a dorm on campus. With commuting three hours in the morning and three in the afternoon, I clearly live several miles from campus. After moving in the beginning of November, I’ve noticed a distinct difference in the ways we dispose our items in my household. We used to be able to frequently recycle because the transfer station was “just up the road”. Literally, you could make a right turn out of our neighborhood, and within seconds it was the next right. The ways in which we leave our mark through trash has a lot to do with our location.  Now, it’s not that we stopped recycling entirely. It’s just that we aren’t recycling everything anymore. Occasionally, aluminum cans or plastic yogurt containers will end up in the garbage. This lab has definitely motivated me to start separating the recycling more, and taking the extra step to ensure recycled items don’t end up in the garbage again.

Preserving the Past Together

One of the topics raised at the seminar for Preserving the Past Together on January 12, 2017 was “Paths forward for preserving heritage together”. A way in which archaeologists can work toward these paths are by physically going to the communities. Physically being in the community allows archaeologists to hear from directly from members, which gives them more information and multiple perspectives. This then allows archaeologists to more accurately record histories, and therefore more accurately preserve the past. At the seminar, Leonard Cambell said, “I have information they can’t get out of a book.” This really made me think. They mentioned there are items that have certain knowledge involved which is sometimes kept from archaeologists. This information might have been left out because the archaeologist wasn’t trusted, or the they didn’t find an opportunity to discover a more complete truth.

This ties into a question that I was stumped on for the rest of the day. The question was, “How do you protect something you can’t even talk about?” Archaeologists must earn the trust of the tribes, representatives, and the staff to accomplish this. Identifying the tribe, and meeting and communicating with representatives and staff are ways in which archaeologists can earn trust, and then be given a more complete truth. One member mentioned how they would appreciate if someone interested in their history would write an email including more than just two sentences. If someone is interested in an honest history, won’t they have more questions or comments than two sentences? What are they really interested in?

It’s important that archaeologists allow communities to tell their own story. What right does an archaeologist have in telling someone else’s story anyway? Especially if they don’t have as much of the truth as they could have uncovered with identifying, meeting, and communicating with members or representatives.

– Stephanie H.

About Stephanie


Hello! I’m Stephanie, and I’m a senior studying Archaeology, Human Evolutionary Biology, and Medical Anthropology & Global Health here at the University of Washington. My daily commute is about six hours long. The best part is the ferry, and occasionally being slowed down by a pod of Orcas. I began the running start program my senior year of high school, and obtained my Associate’s degree at Tacoma Community College in 2013. Afterward, I took some prerequisites at Olympic College for a year and volunteered in the cadaver lab for two quarters. I then transferred to the university in Fall of 2014. I first became interested in archaeology after reading a National Geographic article on Otzi, The Iceman. I don’t have a specific focus in archaeology just yet, but I have a few different interests.