Implementation Science

What is Implementation Science and what is the focus of this training program?

This mentored research and career development program will focus on implementation science, also known as T4 translation research. T4 translation research is the systematic study of methods (or strategies) to promote the uptake and integration of proven health interventions into “real world” settings. Implementation science is less concerned with “what to do” to improve health and more concerned with “how to do it;” that is how to deliver effective health interventions (e.g., prevention, screening, treatment, and follow-up care) with consistency and quality. Implementation science emerged as an organized, institutionally supported field of scientific inquiry in response to the urgent need to accelerate the translation of research findings into routine practice and ultimately, better health and health outcomes. In contrast to clinical research, which typically focuses on the health effects of a clinical or behavioral intervention, implementation science typically focuses on rates and quality of use or delivery of these interventions. Primary outcomes of interest in implementation studies include acceptability, affordability, appropriateness, cost, feasibility, fidelity, penetration, and sustainability of the intervention in the specific context. This career development opportunity is designed lead to research independence in the area of late stage translation (T4) research.

For more information about implementation science, consult the following articles:

  • Bauer MS, Damschroder L, Hagedorn H, Smith J, Kilbourne AM. An introduction to implementation science for the non-specialist. BMC Psychol. 2015 Sep 16;3:32. doi: 10.1186/s40359-015-0089-9. PMCID: PMC4573926.
  • Peters DH, Adam T, Alonge O, Agyepong A, Tran N. Implementation research: what it is and how to do it. BMJ. 2013 Nov 20;347. [LINK]
  • Proctor E, Silmere H, Raghavan R, Hovmand P, Aarons G, Bunger A, Griffey R, Hensley M. Outcomes for implementation research: conceptual distinctions, measurement challenges, and research agenda. Adm Policy Ment Health. 2011 Mar;38(2):65-76. PMCID: PMC3068522.
  • Nilsen P. Making sense of implementation theories, models, and frameworks. Implement Sci. 2015;10:53. PMCID: PMC4406164.