Author Archives: akost

Practical Topics in Professionalism for Clerkships

READ: Physician impairment: When should you report?  Current Psychiatry. 2011 September;10(9):67-71  

Read this article which describes examples of physician impairment and colleagues’ responsibilities around reporting.

READ: AMA Opinion on Romantic or Sexual Relationships 

Read this opinion piece that reviews the AMA’s position on romantic and sexual relationships with patients.

READ: Responding to Requests about Prayer 

Read this article which talks about situations when patients ask clinicians to pray with them.

READ: Gifts from Patients. AMA Ethics Opinion 

Read this opinion piece about accepting gifts from patients.  AMA Ethics opinions are good resources for discussions on professionalism and ethics issues.

Evidence Pyramid and PICO for Clerkships

You now have experience developing PICO questions and have learned about different study designs including their strengths and weaknesses.  During your clerkship experiences you and your team will have many questions about how to best care for your patients. Throughout your career you will need to seek evidence on best practices to make clinical decisions and will have to sort through journal articles, practice guidelines and evidence summaries to determine how to proceed with diagnostics and therapies.  Understanding different ways to appraise literature will help you answer your questions and make decisions based on evidence.

There are many resources available to you through the University of Washington Health Sciences Library to assist in this process.

For a list of sites to search for evidence see

For a refresher on PICO questions see

For this session, please reflect on your case study.  Consider possible interventions or therapies that may be beneficial to the patient. Develop a PICO question before the session as you will be reviewing and appraising literature in order to answer this in class.

Intimate Partner Violence

Recognize structural factors that contribute to IPV and IPV disparities, using this example of IPV among Indigenous women. 

There will be an in-class discussion of this reading.  Amnesty International “Maze of Injustice” Chapters 1, 2 and 8 (pp 1-18, 75-82)

Here is a brief (2min) frame of IPV and the importance to health & healthcare 

IPV introductory video:


Optional reference for students to have as they travel throughout WWAMI, to understand their responsibilities/requirements if they encounter a disclosure: 

Information on rules/requirements for mandatory reporting by state

Optional reference for students to have as they travel throughout WWAMI, to direct patients to appropriate resources ;

Information on state-specific DV/IPV/assault resources: state by state numbers and resources 2018

Optional printable reference for students who wish to use/give out the cards and/or lose the hard copy they were given:

“Is Your Relationship Affecting Your Health” safety card

Optional reading for students who wish to learn more about dating violence among teens/tweens:

Fact sheet on dating violence among adolescents

Intersectionality and Structural Competency

These three readings explore the complexities of identity and power in the clinical setting from the patient and physician perspectives.

  1. Manning, Kimberly D. “The nod.” JAMA 312.2 (2014): 133-134.
  2. Gridley, Samantha. “The Gold–Hope Tang, MD 2015 Humanism in Medicine Essay Contest: Third Place Gauze and Guns.” Academic Medicine 90.10 (2015): 1356-1357.
  3. Lynch, Katrina. “The Gold–Hope Tang, MD 2015 Humanism in Medicine Essay Contest: Second Place The Doctor Will See You Now.” Academic Medicine 90.11 (2015): 1530-1531.

Optional readings for students who want to explore more:

Power and Hierarchy

READ: A young doctor’s fear of raising questions causes a mistake

This article was written by a medical student (who is now faculty in the Department of Medicine at UW) who describes feeling uncomfortable with a patient care task he was asked to perform. He felt silenced by the medical hierarchy and didn’t speak up at the time due to fear. He emphasizes the importance of changing the culture of medicine to one that respects open communication and respectful advocacy to promote safety in the learning environment and patient care.

National and Global Health Systems

In an article published in the American Journal of Public Health in 2003, Kindig and Stoddard defined population health as “the health outcomes of a group of individuals, including the distribution of such outcomes within the group.”[1] Population health aims to improve the health status of entire human populations, and includes efforts by organizations and institutions at the local, state, federal, national, and global levels to measure the distribution of outcomes and link them to health policies and interventions. More information can be found in that article [READ this linked article by Kindig and Stoddard].

Many organizations involved in public health in the US support the overall goals of population health and fill important roles such as surveillance, national registries, health surveys, and collection of administrative data that can help decision-makers form effective policy. For an overview of how organizations in the US Public Health system provide core functions and essential services, please see the powerpoint at [READ this linked presentation – US Public Health 101]. For a description of the different US government agencies involved in supporting public and population, please see the brief descriptions posted by the US Public Health Service, describing agencies within the Department of Health and Human Services ( and those in other departments of the federal government (

Internationally, the United States has an important impact on global health. For descriptions of the main institutions and agencies that have responsibilities and roles in international efforts to promote global health, see

Value Based Healthcare Policy

Value-based payment models aim to increase value by improving outcomes and lowering costs. Though there are many possible approaches to achieve this aim, most models use some combination of care coordination and financial incentives/penalties tied to quality metrics. The reading provides a general overview of the types of value-based payment models.

READ: What is Value-Based Healthcare?

WATCH: The ABCs of ACOs for a brief overview of ACOs. Pay special attention to how they differ from HMOs.

WATCH: The Realities of PCMH through 30:00 for a discussion of PCMH. Pay special attention to how they compare to ACOs.


Value and Reducing Waste

Choosing Wisely: PDF

Things We Do for No Reason: PDF

Teachable Moment: PDF

American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria: PDF

Principles of High Value Care

Familiarize yourself with the definitions of cost and waste and their relationship to value. 

This module will introduce the definitions of cost and waste as well as their relationship to value. A key point is that cost can mean more than just financial impact so pay special attention to the downstream effects of a low-value intervention on a patient.

IHI Module TA103